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The american dream george carlin. The American dream theater. The american dream theme song. The American dreaming. The american dreams vr. The American Dream is the ideal that the government should protect each person's opportunity to pursue their own idea of happiness. This protection extends to private enterprise, allowing a free market economy. That economy depends on the free flow of information to function. It also supports free trade agreements and foreign direct investment. According to sociologist Emily Rosenberg, these four components have led to a fifth: many other nations want to replicate America's development.   The government protects the rights of you and every other American citizen to find your own path to economic prosperity. Unlike many other countries, you are not required to follow your father’s profession. Your destiny is not legally determined at birth by caste, religion, or gender. There is still discrimination, but the law protects your right to pursue a better life. How the American Dream Is Protected by Law The Declaration of Independence states the principles that underly this American Dream.   It uses the familiar quote: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. " The Declaration continued, "That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. " The Founding Fathers based the U. S. Constitution, the highest law in the land, on these rights.   That document put into law the revolutionary idea that each person's desire to pursue happiness was not just self-indulgence. It was a part of what drives ambition and creativity. By legally protecting these values, the Founding Fathers set up a society that was very attractive for those aspiring to a better life. To the drafters of the Declaration, the American Dream could only thrive if it were not hindered by taxation without representation.   Kings, military rulers, or tyrants shouldn’t decide taxes and other laws. The people should have the right to elect officials to represent them. These leaders must abide by the laws themselves and not create new legislation, willy-nilly. Legal disputes must be settled by a jury rather than by the whim of the leader. The Declaration also specifically states that a country must be allowed free trade. The American Dream protects every American's right to achieve their highest economic potential. That allows them to contribute their utmost to society. It is the belief that the best way to ensure national economic growth is to protect citizens’ right to improve their lives.   In 1931, historian James Truslow Adams first publicly defined the American Dream. He used the phrase in his book "Epic of America. "   Adams' often-repeated quote is, "The American Dream is that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement. " Adams went on to say that it is not, "... a dream of motor cars and high wages merely, but a dream of social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position. ” The American Dream is "the charm of anticipated success. " So said French historian Alexis de Tocqueville in his book "Democracy in America. "   He studied American society in the 19th century. This charm has drawn millions of immigrants to U. shores. It's also been a compelling vision for other nations. Three Factors That Made the American Dream Possible The American Dream was made possible by a setting that was conducive to prosperity, peace, and opportunity. Here are the three main geographic, economic, and political factors. First, the United States has a large land mass under one government, thanks to the outcome of the Civil War. Second, America has benign neighbors. That's partially due to geography. Canada's climate is too cold and Mexico's is too hot for them to create powerful economic threats. At least 50% of Canada’s land is unusable since it is locked up in permafrost.   High temperatures in Mexico reduce its agricultural output. These temperatures limit the economic growth Mexico could have had with a more temperate climate.   Third, abundant natural resources feed U. commerce. These include oil, rainfall, and plenty of rivers. Long shorelines and a flat terrain ease transportation. The United States is a prime example of how natural resources boosted the economy and gave the nation a head start toward garnering its present global stature. These conditions fostered a populace united by language, political system, and values. That allowed a diverse population to become a competitive advantage. U. companies use it to become more innovative. They have a large, easily accessible test market for new products. At the same time, the nation's diverse demographics allows innovators to test niche products. This American “melting pot” generates more innovative ideas than a small, homogenous population would. America’s success may also be attributed in part to having the benefits of cultural diversity. The History of the American Dream At first, the Founding Fathers only extended the Dream to white property owners.   But the idea of inalienable rights was so powerful that laws were added to extend these rights to slaves, women, and non-property owners. In this way, the American Dream changed the course of America itself. In the 1920s, the American Dream started morphing from the right to create a better life to the desire to acquire material things. This change was described in the F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel, "The Great Gatsby". In it, the character Daisy Buchanan cries when she sees Jay Gatsby’s shirts, because she’s “never seen such—such beautiful shirts before. ”   This greed-driven version of the Dream was never truly attainable. Someone else always had more. The Dream of "The Great Gatsby" was “an orgiastic future that year by year recedes before us. It eluded us then, but that's no matter — tomorrow we will run faster, stretch out our arms farther... "   This greed led to the stock market crash of 1929 and the Great Depression. Throughout the years, the nation's leaders have verbalized the evolution of the American Dream. President Abraham Lincoln granted the Dream's equal opportunity to slaves. President Woodrow Wilson supported the voting rights of women. It led to the passage of the 19th Amendment to the Constitution in 1918. President Lyndon B. Johnson promoted Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. That ended segregation in the schools. It protects workers from discrimination based on race; color; religion; sex, which includes pregnancy; or national origin. In 1967, he extended those rights to those over 40. President Barack Obama supported the legal benefits of the marriage contract regardless of sexual orientation. After the 1920s, many presidents supported the Gatsby Dream. They said it was the government's responsibility to guarantee material benefits. President Franklin D. Roosevelt extended equal opportunity to homeownership by creating Fannie Mae to insure mortgages. His Economic Bill of Rights advocated the right to decent housing, to a good education, to adequate health care, and the right to earn enough to provide a decent living.   Roosevelt added, "We have come to a clear realization of the true individual freedom cannot exist without economic security and independence... who are hungry, people who are out of a job are the stuff of which dictatorships are made. " In other words, he strengthened the Dream to protect America from socialism, communism, and Nazism. FDR's Unfinished Second Bill of Rights sought to address domestic security.   President Harry Truman built upon this idea after World War II. His "post-war social contract" included the GI Bill.   It provided government-funded college degrees for returning veterans. Urban policy expert Matt Lassiter summed up Truman’s “contract” this way: ".. you worked hard and played by the rules, you deserved certain things. You deserved security and decent shelter and to not have to worry all the time that you might lose your house to bankruptcy. " U. prosperity after World War II allowed people to expect those things in their lifetime. Presidents George W. Bush and Bill Clinton supported the Dream of homeownership. During the 2008 presidential campaign, Hillary Clinton presented the American Dream Plan. This included the opportunity to go to college, save for retirement, own a home, provide health insurance for all children, encourage business growth, and afford prosperity. The Bottom Line There is disagreement over the definition of the American Dream today. Some even think we've seen the end of the American Dream. But this inspiring idea from the Founding Fathers will continue to evolve. Both the right to pursue happiness and the right to disagree about what that means are what make the American Dream so powerful. This drives the economic engine that’s made the U. free market thrive.
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The American dream. The american dream limousine. The american dream. The American dreamweaver. The american dream mall nj. The American dream horse. The American dreamer. For many immigrants, the Statue of Liberty was their first view of the United States. It signified new opportunities in life and thus the statue is an iconic symbol of the American Dream. The American Dream is a national ethos of the United States, the set of ideals (democracy, rights, liberty, opportunity and equality) in which freedom includes the opportunity for prosperity and success, as well as an upward social mobility for the family and children, achieved through hard work in a society with few barriers. In the definition of the American Dream by James Truslow Adams in 1931, "life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement" regardless of social class or circumstances of birth. [1] The American Dream is rooted in the Declaration of Independence, which proclaims that " all men are created equal " with the right to " life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. " [2] Also, the U. S. Constitution promotes similar freedom, in the Preamble: to "secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity". History The meaning of the "American Dream" has changed over the course of history, and includes both personal components (such as home ownership and upward mobility) and a global vision. Historically the Dream originated in the mystique regarding frontier life. As the Governor of Virginia noted in 1774, the Americans "for ever imagine the Lands further off are still better than those upon which they are already settled". He added that, "if they attained Paradise, they would move on if they heard of a better place farther west". [3] 19th century In the 19th century, many well-educated Germans fled the failed 1848 revolution. They welcomed the political freedoms in the New World, and the lack of a hierarchical or aristocratic society that determined the ceiling for individual aspirations. One of them explained: The German emigrant comes into a country free from the despotism, privileged orders and monopolies, intolerable taxes, and constraints in matters of belief and conscience. Everyone can travel and settle wherever he pleases. No passport is demanded, no police mingles in his affairs or hinders his movements... Fidelity and merit are the only sources of honor here. The rich stand on the same footing as the poor; the scholar is not a mug above the most humble mechanics; no German ought to be ashamed to pursue any occupation... [In America] wealth and possession of real estate confer not the least political right on its owner above what the poorest citizen has. Nor are there nobility, privileged orders, or standing armies to weaken the physical and moral power of the people, nor are there swarms of public functionaries to devour in idleness credit for. Above all, there are no princes and corrupt courts representing the so-called divine 'right of birth. ' In such a country the talents, energy and perseverance of a person... have far greater opportunity to display than in monarchies. [4] The discovery of gold in California in 1849 brought in a hundred thousand men looking for their fortune overnight—and a few did find it. Thus was born the California Dream of instant success. Historian H. W. Brands noted that in the years after the Gold Rush, the California Dream spread across the nation: The old American Dream... was the dream of the Puritans, of Benjamin Franklin's "Poor Richard"... of men and women content to accumulate their modest fortunes a little at a time, year by year by year. The new dream was the dream of instant wealth, won in a twinkling by audacity and good luck. [This] golden dream... became a prominent part of the American psyche only after Sutter's Mill. " [5] Historian Frederick Jackson Turner in 1893 advanced the Frontier Thesis, under which American democracy and the American Dream were formed by the American frontier. He stressed the process—the moving frontier line—and the impact it had on pioneers going through the process. He also stressed results; especially that American democracy was the primary result, along with egalitarianism, a lack of interest in high culture, and violence. "American democracy was born of no theorist's dream; it was not carried in the Susan Constant to Virginia, nor in the Mayflower to Plymouth. It came out of the American forest, and it gained new strength each time it touched a new frontier, " said Turner. [6] In the thesis, the American frontier established liberty by releasing Americans from European mindsets and eroding old, dysfunctional customs. The frontier had no need for standing armies, established churches, aristocrats or nobles, nor for landed gentry who controlled most of the land and charged heavy rents. Frontier land was free for the taking. Turner first announced his thesis in a paper entitled " The Significance of the Frontier in American History ", delivered to the American Historical Association in 1893 in Chicago. He won wide acclaim among historians and intellectuals. Turner elaborated on the theme in his advanced history lectures and in a series of essays published over the next 25 years, published along with his initial paper as The Frontier in American History. [7] Turner's emphasis on the importance of the frontier in shaping American character influenced the interpretation found in thousands of scholarly histories. By the time Turner died in 1932, 60% of the leading history departments in the U. were teaching courses in frontier history along Turnerian lines. [8] 20th century Freelance writer James Truslow Adams popularized the phrase "American Dream" in his 1931 book Epic of America: But there has been also the American dream, that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for every man, with opportunity for each according to his ability or achievement. It is a difficult dream for the European upper classes to interpret adequately, and too many of us ourselves have grown weary and mistrustful of it. It is not a dream of motor cars and high wages merely, but a dream of social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position... The American dream, that has lured tens of millions of all nations to our shores in the past century has not been a dream of merely material plenty, though that has doubtlessly counted heavily. It has been much more than that. It has been a dream of being able to grow to fullest development as man and woman, unhampered by the barriers which had slowly been erected in the older civilizations, unrepressed by social orders which had developed for the benefit of classes rather than for the simple human being of any and every class. [1] Martin Luther King Jr., in his "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" (1963) rooted the civil rights movement in the African-American quest for the American Dream: [9] We will win our freedom because the sacred heritage of our nation and the eternal will of God are embodied in our echoing demands... when these disinherited children of God sat down at lunch counters they were in reality standing up for what is best in the American dream and for the most sacred values in our Judeo-Christian heritage, thereby bringing our nation back to those great wells of democracy which were dug deep by the Founding Fathers in their formulation of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. 21st century American Dream has long been associated with consumerism. [10] [11] According to Sierra Club ’s Dave Tilford, "With less than 5 percent of world population, the U. uses one-third of the world’s paper, a quarter of the world’s oil, 23 percent of the coal, 27 percent of the aluminum, and 19 percent of the copper. " [12] Literature The concept of the American Dream has been used in popular discourse, and scholars have traced its use in American literature ranging from the Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, [13] to Mark Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884), Willa Cather's My Ántonia, [14] F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby (1925), Theodore Dreiser's An American Tragedy (1925) and Toni Morrison 's Song of Solomon (1977). [15] Other writers who used the American Dream theme include Hunter S. Thompson, Edward Albee, [16] John Steinbeck, [17] Langston Hughes, [18] and Giannina Braschi. [19] The American Dream is also discussed in Arthur Miller 's Death of a Salesman as the play's protagonist, Willy, is on a quest for the American Dream. As Huang shows, the American Dream is a recurring theme in the fiction of Asian Americans. [20] [21] American ideals Many American authors added American ideals to their work as a theme or other reoccurring idea, to get their point across. [22] There are many ideals that appear in American literature such as, but not limited to, all people are equal, The United States of America is the Land of Opportunity, independence is valued, The American Dream is attainable, and everyone can succeed with hard work and determination. John Winthrop also wrote about this term called, American exceptionalism. This ideology refers to the idea that Americans are, as a nation, elect. [23] European governments, worried that their best young people would leave for America, distributed posters like this to frighten them (this 1869 Swedish anti-emigration poster contrasts Per Svensson's dream of the American idyll (left) and the reality of his life in the wilderness (right), where he is menaced by a mountain lion, a big snake and wild Indians who are scalping and disembowelling someone). [24] The American Dream has been credited with helping to build a cohesive American experience, but has also been blamed for inflated expectations. [25] Some commentators have noted that despite deep-seated belief in the egalitarian American Dream, the modern American wealth structure still perpetuates racial and class inequalities between generations. [26] One sociologist notes that advantage and disadvantage are not always connected to individual successes or failures, but often to prior position in a social group. [26] Since the 1920s, numerous authors, such as Sinclair Lewis in his 1922 novel Babbitt, and F. Scott Fitzgerald, in his 1925 classic, The Great Gatsby, satirized or ridiculed materialism in the chase for the American dream. For example, Jay Gatsby's death mirrors the American Dream's demise, reflecting the pessimism of modern-day Americans. [27] The American Dream is a main theme in the book by John Steinbeck, Of Mice and Men. The two friends George and Lennie dream of their own piece of land with a ranch, so they can "live off the fatta the lan'" and just enjoy a better life. The book later shows that not everyone can achieve the American Dream, thus proving by contradiction it is not possible for all, although it is possible to achieve for a few. A lot of people follow the American Dream to achieve a greater chance of becoming rich. Some posit that the ease of achieving the American Dream changes with technological advances, availability of infrastructure and information, government regulations, state of the economy, and with the evolving cultural values of American demographics. In 1949, Arthur Miller wrote Death of a Salesman, in which the American Dream is a fruitless pursuit. Similarly, in 1971 Hunter S. Thompson depicted in Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas: A Savage Journey Into the Heart of the American Dream a dark psychedelic reflection of the concept—successfully illustrated only in wasted pop-culture excess. [28] The novel Requiem for a Dream by Hubert Selby Jr. is an exploration of the pursuit of American success as it turns delirious and lethal, told through the ensuing tailspin of its main characters. George Carlin famously wrote the joke "it's called the American dream because you have to be asleep to believe it". [29] Carlin pointed to "the big wealthy business interests that control things and make all the important decisions" as having a greater influence than an individual's choice. [29] Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist Chris Hedges echos this sentiment in his 2012 book Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt: [30] The vaunted American dream, the idea that life will get better, that progress is inevitable if we obey the rules and work hard, that material prosperity is assured, has been replaced by a hard and bitter truth. The American dream, we now know, is a lie. We will all be sacrificed. The virus of corporate abuse – the perverted belief that only corporate profit matters – has spread to outsource our jobs, cut the budgets of our schools, close our libraries, and plague our communities with foreclosures and unemployment. The American Dream, and the sometimes dark response to it, has been a long-standing theme in American film. [31] Many counterculture films of the 1960s and 1970s ridiculed the traditional quest for the American Dream. For example, Easy Rider (1969), directed by Dennis Hopper, shows the characters making a pilgrimage in search of "the true America" in terms of the hippie movement, drug use, and communal lifestyles. [32] Political leaders Scholars have explored the American Dream theme in the careers of numerous political leaders, including Henry Kissinger, [33] Hillary Clinton, [34] Benjamin Franklin, and Abraham Lincoln. [35] The theme has been used for many local leaders as well, such as José Antonio Navarro, the Tejano leader (1795–1871), who served in the legislatures of Coahuila y Texas, the Republic of Texas, and the State of Texas. [36] In 2006 U. S. Senator Barack Obama wrote a memoir, The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream. It was this interpretation of the American Dream for a young black man that helped establish his statewide and national reputations. [37] [38] The exact meaning of the Dream became for at least one commentator a partisan political issue in the 2008 and 2012 elections. [39] Political conflicts, to some degree, have been ameliorated by the shared values of all parties in the expectation that the American Dream will resolve many difficulties and conflicts. [40] Public opinion " A lot of Americans think the U. has more social mobility than other western industrialized countries. This (study using medians instead of averages that underestimate the range and show less stark distinctions between the top and bottom tiers) makes it abundantly clear that we have less. Your circumstances at birth—specifically, what your parents do for a living—are an even bigger factor in how far you get in life than we had previously realized. Generations of Americans considered the United States to be a land of opportunity. This research raises some sobering questions about that image. "— Michael Hout, Professor of Sociology at New York University [41] The ethos today implies an opportunity for Americans to achieve prosperity through hard work. According to The Dream, this includes the opportunity for one's children to grow up and receive a good education and career without artificial barriers. It is the opportunity to make individual choices without the prior restrictions that limited people according to their class, caste, religion, race, or ethnicity. Immigrants to the United States sponsored ethnic newspapers in their own language; the editors typically promoted the American Dream. [42] Lawrence Samuel argues: For many in both the working class and the middle class, upward mobility has served as the heart and soul of the American Dream, the prospect of "betterment" and to "improve one's lot" for oneself and one's children much of what this country is all about. "Work hard, save a little, send the kids to college so they can do better than you did, and retire happily to a warmer climate" has been the script we have all been handed. [43] A key element of the American Dream is promoting opportunity for one's children, Johnson interviewing parents says, "This was one of the most salient features of the interview data: parents—regardless of background—relied heavily on the American Dream to understand the possibilities for children, especially their own children". [44] Rank et al. argue, "The hopes and optimism that Americans possess pertain not only to their own lives, but to their children's lives as well. A fundamental aspect of the American Dream has always been the expectation that the next generation should do better than the previous generation. " [45] Hanson and Zogby (2010) report on numerous public opinion polls that since the 1980s have explored the meaning of the concept for Americans, and their expectations for its future. In these polls, a majority of Americans consistently reported that for their family, the American Dream is more about spiritual happiness than material goods. Majorities state that working hard is the most important element for getting ahead. However, an increasing minority stated that hard work and determination does not guarantee success. Most Americans predict that achieving the Dream with fair means will become increasingly difficult for future generations. They are increasingly pessimistic about the opportunity for the working class to get ahead; on the other hand, they are increasingly optimistic about the opportunities available to poor people and to new immigrants. Furthermore, most support programs make special efforts to help minorities get ahead. [46] In a 2013 poll by YouGov, 41% of responders said it is impossible for most to achieve the American Dream, while 38% said it is still possible. [48] Most Americans perceive a college education as the ticket to the American Dream. [49] Some recent observers warn that soaring student loan debt crisis and shortages of good jobs may undermine this ticket. [50] The point was illustrated in The Fallen American Dream, [51] a documentary film that details the concept of the American Dream from its historical origins to its current perception. Research published in 2013 shows that the US provides, alongside the United Kingdom and Spain, the least economic mobility of any of 13 rich, democratic countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. [52] [53] Prior research suggested that the United States shows roughly average levels of occupational upward mobility and shows lower rates of income mobility than comparable societies. [54] [55] Blanden et al. report, "the idea of the US as 'the land of opportunity' persists; and clearly seems misplaced. " [56] According to these studies, "by international standards, the United States has an unusually low level of intergenerational mobility: our parents' income is highly predictive of our incomes as adults. Intergenerational mobility in the United States is lower than in France, Germany, Sweden, Canada, Finland, Norway and Denmark. Research in 2006 found that among high-income countries for which comparable estimates are available, only the United Kingdom had a lower rate of mobility than the United States. " [57] Economist Isabel Sawhill concluded that "this challenges the notion of America as the land of opportunity". [58] [59] [60] Several public figures and commentators, from David Frum to Richard G. Wilkinson, have noted that the American dream is better realized in Denmark, which is ranked as having the highest social mobility in the OECD. [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] In 2015, economist Joseph Stiglitz stated, "Maybe we should be calling the American Dream the Scandinavian Dream. " [66] In the United States, home ownership is sometimes used as a proxy for achieving the promised prosperity; ownership has been a status symbol separating the middle classes from the poor. [67] Sometimes the Dream is identified with success in sports or how working class immigrants seek to join the American way of life. [68] Four dreams of consumerism Ownby (1999) identifies four American Dreams that the new consumer culture addressed. The first was the "Dream of Abundance" offering a cornucopia of material goods to all Americans, making them proud to be the richest society on earth. The second was the "Dream of a Democracy of Goods" whereby everyone had access to the same products regardless of race, gender, ethnicity, or class, thereby challenging the aristocratic norms of the rest of the world whereby only the rich or well-connected are granted access to luxury. The "Dream of Freedom of Choice" with its ever-expanding variety of good allowed people to fashion their own particular lifestyle. Finally, the "Dream of Novelty", in which ever-changing fashions, new models, and unexpected new products broadened the consumer experience in terms of purchasing skills and awareness of the market, and challenged the conservatism of traditional society and culture, and even politics. Ownby acknowledges that the dreams of the new consumer culture radiated out from the major cities, but notes that they quickly penetrated the most rural and most isolated areas, such as rural Mississippi. With the arrival of the model T after 1910, consumers in rural America were no longer locked into local general stores with their limited merchandise and high prices in comparison to shops in towns and cities. Ownby demonstrates that poor black Mississippians shared in the new consumer culture, both inside Mississippi, and it motivated the more ambitious to move to Memphis or Chicago. [69] [70] Other parts of the world The aspirations of the "American Dream" in the broad sense of upward mobility has been systematically spread to other nations since the 1890s as American missionaries and businessmen consciously sought to spread the Dream, says Rosenberg. Looking at American business, religious missionaries, philanthropies, Hollywood, labor unions and Washington agencies, she says they saw their mission not in catering to foreign elites but instead reaching the world's masses in democratic fashion. "They linked mass production, mass marketing, and technological improvement to an enlightened democratic spirit... In the emerging litany of the American dream what historian Daniel Boorstin later termed a "democracy of things" would disprove both Malthus 's predictions of scarcity and Marx 's of class conflict. " It was, she says "a vision of global social progress. " [71] Rosenberg calls the overseas version of the American Dream "liberal-developmentalism" and identified five critical components: (1) belief that other nations could and should replicate America's own developmental experience; (2) faith in private free enterprise; (3) support for free or open access for trade and investment; (4) promotion of free flow of information and culture; and (5) growing acceptance of [U. ] governmental activity to protect private enterprise and to stimulate and regulate American participation in international economic and cultural exchange. [72] Knights and McCabe argued American management gurus have taken the lead in exporting the ideas: "By the latter half of the twentieth century they were truly global and through them the American Dream continues to be transmitted, repackaged and sold by an infantry of consultants and academics backed up by an artillery of books and videos". [73] After World War II In West Germany after World War II, says Pommerin, "the most intense motive was the longing for a better life, more or less identical with the American dream, which also became a German dream". [74] Cassamagnaghi argues that to women in Italy after 1945, films and magazine stories about American life offered an "American dream. " New York City especially represented a sort of utopia where every sort of dream and desire could become true. Italian women saw a model for their own emancipation from second class status in their patriarchal society. [75] Britain The American dream regarding home ownership had little resonance before the 1980s. [76] In the 1980s, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher worked to create a similar dream, by selling public-housing units to their tenants. Her Conservative Party called for more home ownership: "HOMES OF OUR OWN: To most people ownership means first and foremost a home of their own... We should like in time to improve on existing legislation with a realistic grants scheme to assist first-time buyers of cheaper homes. " [77] Guest calls this Thatcher's approach to the American Dream. [78] Knights and McCabe argue that, "a reflection and reinforcement of the American Dream has been the emphasis on individualism as extolled by Margaret Thatcher and epitomized by the 'enterprise' culture. " [79] Russia Since the fall of Communism in the Soviet Union in 1991, the American Dream has fascinated Russians. [80] The first post-Communist leader Boris Yeltsin embraced the "American way" and teamed up with Harvard University free market economists Jeffrey Sachs and Robert Allison to give Russia economic shock therapy in the 1990s. The newly independent Russian media idealized America and endorsed shock therapy for the economy. [81] In 2008 Russian President Dmitry Medvedev lamented the fact that 77% of Russia's 142 million people live "cooped up" in apartment buildings. In 2010 his administration announced a plan for widespread home ownership: "Call it the Russian dream", said Alexander Braverman, the Director of the Federal Fund for the Promotion of Housing Construction Development. Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, worried about his nation's very low birth rate, said he hoped home ownership will inspire Russians "to have more babies". [82] China The Chinese Dream describes a set of ideals in the People's Republic of China. It is used by journalists, government officials and activists to describe the aspiration of individual self-improvement in Chinese society. Although the phrase has been used previously by Western journalists and scholars, [83] [84] a translation of a New York Times article written by the American journalist Thomas Friedman, "China Needs Its Own Dream", has been credited with popularizing the concept in China. [84] He attributes the term to Peggy Liu and the environmental NGO JUCCCE's China Dream project, [85] [86] which defines the Chinese Dream as sustainable development. [86] In 2013 the President of the PRC Xi Jinping began promoting the phrase as a slogan, leading to its widespread use in the Chinese media. [87] The concept of Chinese Dream is very similar to the idea of "American Dream". It stresses entrepreneurship and glorifies a generation of self-made men and women in post- reform China, such as rural immigrants who moved to the urban centers and achieve magnificent improvement in terms of their living standards, and social life. Chinese Dream can be interpreted as the collective consciousness of Chinese people during the era of social transformation and economic progress. The idea was put forward by the new CPC General Secretary Xi Jinping on November 29, 2012. The government hoped to create a revitalized China, while promoting innovation and technology to restore the international prestige of China. In this light, Chinese Dream, like American exceptionalism, is a nationalistic concept as well. Some 90% of Chinese families own their own homes, giving the country one of the highest rates of home ownership in the world. [88] China is the world's fastest-growing consumer market. [11] According to biologist Paul R. Ehrlich, "If everyone consumed resources at the US level, you will need another four or five Earths. " [89] See also Center for a New American Dream Empire of Liberty References ^ a b Library of Congress. American Memory. "What is the American Dream? ", lesson plan. ^ Kamp, David (April 2009). "Rethinking the American Dream". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on May 30, 2009. Retrieved June 20, 2009. ^ Lord Dunmore to Lord Dartmouth, December 24, 1774, quoted in John Miller, Origins of the American Revolution (1944) p. 77 ^ F. Bogen, The German in America (Boston, 1851), quoted in Stephen Ozment, A Mighty Fortress: A New History of the German People (2004) pp. 170–71 ^ H. Brands, The age of gold: the California Gold Rush and the new American dream (2003) p. 442. ^ Turner, Frederick Jackson (1920). "The Significance of the Frontier in American History". The Frontier in American History. p. 293. ^ Turner, The Frontier in American History (1920) chapter 1 ^ Bogue, Allan G. (1994). "Frederick Jackson Turner Reconsidered". The History Teacher. 27 (2). p. 195. doi: 10. 2307/494720. JSTOR   494720. ^ Quoted in James T. Kloppenberg, The Virtues of Liberalism (1998). 147 ^ "The Rise of American Consumerism". PBS. ^ a b "The meteoric rise of Chinese consumerism will reshape the world, and maybe even destroy it". Quartz. June 4, 2017. ^ "Use It and Lose It: The Outsize Effect of U. Consumption on the Environment". Scientific American. September 14, 2012. ^ J. A. Leo Lemay, "Franklin's Autobiography and the American Dream, " in J. Leo Lemay and P. M. Zall, eds. Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography (Norton Critical Editions, 1986) pp. 349–360 ^ James E. Miller, Jr., "My Antonia and the American Dream" Prairie Schooner 48, no. 2 (Summer 1974) pp. 112–123. ^ Harold Bloom and Blake Hobby, eds. The American Dream (2009) ^ Nicholas Canaday, Jr., "Albee's The American Dream and the Existential Vacuum. " South Central Bulletin Vol. 26, No. 4 (Winter 1966) pp. 28–34 ^ Hayley Haugen, ed., The American Dream in John Steinbeck's of Mice and Men (2010) ^ Lloyd W. Brown, "The American Dream and the Legacy of Revolution in the Poetry of Langston Hughes" Studies in Black Literature (Spring 1976) pp. 16–18. ^ Riofio, John (2015). "Fractured Dreams: Life and Debt in United States of Banana" (PDF). Biennial Conference on Latina/o Utopias Literatures: "Latina/o Utopias: Futures, Forms, and the Will of Literature". Braschi's novel is a scathing over-wrought concepts of Liberty and the American Dream.... (It) connects the dots between 9/11, the suppression of individual liberties, and the fragmentation of the individuals and communities in favor of a collective worship of the larger dictates of the market and the economy. ^ anupama jain (2011). How to Be South Asian in America: Narratives of Ambivalence and Belonging. Temple University Press. ISBN   9781439903032. Retrieved November 27, 2018. ^ Guiyou Huang, The Columbia guide to Asian American literature since 1945 (2006), pp 44, 67, 85, 94. ^ Neumann, Henry. Teaching American Ideals through Literature. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1918. Print. ^ Symposium: The Role of the Judge in the Twenty-first Century. Boston: Boston U Law School, 2006. Print. ^ The pictures originally illustrated a cautionary tale published in 1869 in the Swedish periodical Läsning för folket, the organ of the Society for the Propagation of Useful Knowledge ( Sällskapet för nyttiga kunskapers spridande). H. Arnold Barton, A Folk Divided: Homeland Swedes and Swedish Americans, 152547256425264562564562462654666 FILS DE (Uppsala, 1994) p. 71. ^ Greider, William. The Nation, May 6, 2009. The Future of the American Dream, Retrieved on June 20, 20205. ^ a b Johnson, 2006, pp. 6–10. "The crucial point is not that inequalities exist, but that they are being perpetuated in recurrent patterns—they are not always the result of individual success or failure, nor are they randomly distributed throughout the population. In the contemporary United States, the structure of wealth systematically transmits race and class inequalities through generations despite deep-rooted belief otherwise. " ^ Dalton Gross and MaryJean Gross, Understanding The Great Gatsby (1998) p. 5 ^ Stephen E. Ambrose, Douglas Brinkley, Witness to America (1999) p. 518 ^ a b Smith, Mark A. (2010) The Mobilization and Influence of Business Interests in L. Sandy Maisel, Jeffrey M. Berry (2010) The Oxford Handbook of American Political Parties and Interest Groups p. 460; see also: Video: George Carlin "It's called the American Dream because you have to be asleep to believe it. " The Progressive, June 24, 2008. ^ Chris Hedges and Joe Sacco (2012). Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt. pp. 226–227. Nation Books. ISBN   1568586434 ^ Gordon B. Arnold. Projecting the End of the American Dream: Hollywood's Vision of U. Decline. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2013. ^ Barbara Klinger, "The Road to Dystopia: Landscaping the Nation in Easy Rider" in Steven Cohan, ed. The Road Movie Book (1997). ^ Jeremi Suri, " Henry Kissinger, the American Dream, and the Jewish Immigrant Experience in the Cold War, " Diplomatic History, Nov 2008, Vol. 32 Issue 5, pp. 719–747 ^ Dan Dervin, "The Dream-Life of Hillary Clinton", Journal of Psychohistory, Fall 2008, Vol. 36 Issue 2, pp. 157–162 ^ Edward J. Blum, "Lincoln's American Dream: Clashing Political Perspectives", Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association, Summer 2007, Vol. 28 Issue 2, pp. 90–93 ^ David McDonald, Jose Antonio Navarro: In Search of the American Dream in Nineteenth-Century Texas (Texas State Historical Association, 2011) ^ Deborah F. Atwater, "Senator Barack Obama: The Rhetoric of Hope and the American Dream, " Journal of Black Studies, Nov 2007, Vol. 38 Issue 2, pp. 121–129 ^ Willie J. Harrell, "'The Reality of American Life Has Strayed From Its Myths, '" Journal of Black Studies, Sep 2010, Vol. 41 Issue 1, pp. 164–183 online ^ Matthias Maass, "Which Way to Take the American Dream: The U. Elections of 2008 and 2010 as a Struggle for Political Ownership of the American Dream, " Australasian Journal of American Studies (July 2012), vol 31 pp. 25–41. ^ James Laxer and Robert Laxer, The Liberal Idea of Canada: Pierre Trudeau and the Question of Canada's Survival (1977) pp. 83–85 ^ "Lack of social mobility more of an 'occupational hazard' than previously known". ^ Leara D. Rhodes, The Ethnic Press: Shaping the American Dream (Peter Lang Publishing; 2010) ^ Lawrence R. Samuel (2012). The American Dream: A Cultural History. Syracuse UP. p. 7. ISBN   9780815651871. ^ Heather Beth Johnson (2014). American Dream and Power Wealth. Routledge. p. 43. ISBN   9781134728794. ^ Mark Robert Rank; et al. (2014). Chasing the American Dream: Understanding What Shapes Our Fortunes. Oxford U. P. p. 61. ISBN   9780195377910. ^ Sandra L. Hanson, and John Zogby, "The Polls – Trends, " Public Opinion Quarterly, Sept 2010, Vol. 74 Issue 3, pp. 570–584 ^ "Trends in Family Wealth, 1989 to 2013". Congressional Budget Office. August 18, 2016. ^ Henderson, Ben. "American Dream Slipping Away, But Hope Intact". YouGov. Retrieved August 8, 2013. ^ Americans View Higher Education as Key to American Dream Public Agenda - May 2000 ^ Donald L. Barlett; James B. Steele (2012). The Betrayal of the American Dream. PublicAffairs. pp. 125–126. ISBN   9781586489700. ^ The Fallen American Dream Archived June 30, 2013, at ^ Autor, David (May 23, 2014), "Skills, education, and the rise of earnings inequality among the "other 99 percent " ", Science Magazine, 344 (6186), pp. 843–851, Bibcode: 2014Sci... 344.. 843A, doi: 10. 1126/science. 1251868, hdl: 1721. 1/96768 ^ Corak M (2013). "Inequality from Generation to Generation: The United States in Comparison". In Rycroft RS (ed. ). The Economics of Inequality, Poverty, and Discrimination in the 21st Century. ABC-CLIO. p. 111. ^ Beller, Emily; Hout, Michael (2006). "Intergenerational Social Mobility: The United States in Comparative Perspective". The Future of Children. 16 (2): 19–36. 1353/foc. 2006. 0012. JSTOR   3844789. PMID   17036544. ^ Miles Corak, "How to Slide Down the 'Great Gatsby Curve': Inequality, Life Chances, and Public Policy in the United States", December 2012, Center for American Progress. ^ Jo Blanden; Paul Gregg; Stephen Machin (April 2005). "Intergenerational Mobility in Europe and North America" (PDF). The Sutton Trust. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 20, 2013. ^ CAP: Understanding Mobility in America - April 26, 2006 ^ Economic Mobility: Is the American Dream Alive and Well? Archived May 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine Economic Mobility Project - May 2007 ^ Obstacles to social mobility weaken equal opportunities and economic growth, says OECD study, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Economics Department, February 10, 2010. ^ Harder for Americans to Rise From Lower Rungs | By JASON DePARLE | January 4, 2012 ^ David Frum (October 19, 2011). The American Dream moves to Denmark. The Week. Retrieved December 12, 2014. ^ Wilkinson, Richard (Oct 2011). How economic inequality harms societies ( transcript). TED. (Quote featured on his personal profile on the TED website). Retrieved December 13, 2014. ^ Diane Roberts (January 17, 2012). Want to get ahead? Move to Denmark. The Guardian. Retrieved December 13, 2014. ^ Kerry Trueman (October 7, 2011). Looking for the American Dream? Try Denmark. The Huffington Post. Retrieved December 13, 2014. ^ Matt O'Brien (August 3, 2016). This country has figured out the only way to save the American Dream. The Washington Post. Retrieved September 18, 2016. ^ 'Scandinavian Dream' is true fix for America's income inequality. CNN Money. June 3, 2015. ^ William M. Rohe and Harry L. Watson, Chasing the American Dream: New Perspectives on Affordable Homeownership (2007) ^ Thomas M. Tarapacki, Chasing the American Dream: Polish Americans in Sports (1995); Steve Wilson. The Boys from Little Mexico: A Season Chasing the American Dream (2010) is a true story of immigrant boys on a high school soccer team who struggle not only in their quest to win the state championship, but also in their desire to adapt as strangers in a new land. ^ Ted Ownby, American Dreams in Mississippi: Consumers, Poverty, and Culture 1830–1998 (University of North Carolina Press, 1999) ^ Christopher Morris, "Shopping for America in Mississippi, or How I Learn to Stop Complaining and Love the Pemberton Mall, " Reviews in American History" March 2001 v. 29#1 103–110 ^ Emily S. Rosenberg, Spreading the American Dream: American Economic and Cultural Expansion 1890–1945 (1982) pp. 22–23 ^ Rosenberg, Spreading the American Dream p. 7 ^ David Knights and Darren McCabe, Organization and Innovation: Guru Schemes and American Dreams (2003) p 35 ^ Reiner Pommerin (1997). The American Impact on Postwar Germany. Berghahn Books. p. 84. ISBN   9781571810953. ^ Silvia Cassamagnaghi, "New York Nella Stampa Femminile Italiana Del Secondo Dopoguerra", ["New York in the Italian women's press after World War II"] Storia Urbana (Dec 2005) 28# 109, pp. 91–111. ^ Niall Ferguson, The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World (2009) p. 252 ^ See "Conservative manifesto, 1979 Archived May 22, 2013, at the Wayback Machine ^ David E. Guest, "Human Resource Management and the American Dream, " Journal of Management Studies (1990) 27#4 pp. 377–97, reprinted in Michael Poole, Human Resource Management: Origins, Developments and Critical Analyses (1999) p. 159 ^ Knights and McCabe, Organization and Innovation (2003) p. 4 ^ Richard M. Ryan et al., "The American Dream in Russia: Extrinsic Aspirations and Well-Being in Two Cultures, " Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, (Dec. 1999) vol. 25 no. 12 pp. 1509–1524, shows the Russian ideology converging toward the American one, especially among men. ^ Donald J. Raleigh (2011). Soviet Baby Boomers: An Oral History of Russia's Cold War Generation. p. 331. ISBN   9780199744343. ^ Anastasia Ustinova, "Building the New Russian Dream, One Home at a Time", Bloomberg Business Week, June 28 – July 4, 2010, pp. 7–8 ^ Fallows, James (May 3, 2013). "Today's China Notes: Dreams, Obstacles". The Atlantic. ^ a b "The role of Thomas Friedman". The Economist. May 6, 2013. ^ Fish, Isaac Stone (May 3, 2013). "Thomas Friedman: I only deserve partial credit for coining the 'Chinese dream ' ". Foreign Policy. ^ a b "China Dream". JUCCCE. ^ Xi Jinping and the Chinese Dream The Economist May 4, 2013, p. 11 ^ Brown, Ellen (June 13, 2019). "The American Dream Is Alive and Well—in China". Truthdig. Retrieved June 15, 2019. ^ Biologists say half of all species could be extinct by end of the century. February 25, 2017. Further reading Adams, James Truslow. (1931). The Epic of America (Little, Brown, and Co. 1931) Brueggemann, John. Rich, Free, and Miserable: The Failure of Success in America (Rowman & Littlefield; 2010) 233 pages; links discontent among middle-class Americans to the extension of market thinking into every aspect of life. Chomsky, Noam. Requiem for the American Dream: The 10 Principles of Concentration of Wealth & Power. Seven Stories Press, 2017. ISBN   978-1609807368 Chua, Chen Lok. "Two Chinese Versions of the American Dream: The Golden Mountain in Lin Yutang and Maxine Hong Kingston, " MELUS Vol. 8, No. 4, The Ethnic American Dream (Winter, 1981), pp. 61–70 in JSTOR Churchwell, Sarah. Behold, America: The Entangled History of 'America First' and 'the American Dream' (2018). 368 pp. online review Cullen, Jim. The American dream: a short history of an idea that shaped a nation, Oxford University Press US, 2004. ISBN   0-19-517325-2 Hanson, Sandra L., and John Zogby, "The Polls – Trends", Public Opinion Quarterly, Sept 2010, Vol. 74, Issue 3, pp. 570–584 Hanson, Sandra L. and John Kenneth White, ed. The American Dream in the 21st Century (Temple University Press; 2011); 168 pages; essays by sociologists and other scholars how on the American Dream relates to politics, religion, race, gender, and generation. Hopper, Kenneth, and William Hopper. The Puritan Gift: Reclaiming the American Dream Amidst Global Financial Chaos (2009), argues the Dream was devised by British entrepreneurs who build the American economy Johnson, Heather Beth. The American dream and the power of wealth: choosing schools and inheriting inequality in the land of opportunity, CRC Press, 2006. ISBN   0-415-95239-5 Levinson, Julie. The American Success Myth on Film (Palgrave Macmillan; 2012) 220 pages Lieu, Nhi T. The American Dream in Vietnamese (U. of Minnesota Press, 2011) 186 pages ISBN   978-0-8166-6570-9 Ownby, Ted. American Dreams in Mississippi: Consumers, Poverty, and Culture 1830–1998 (University of North Carolina Press, 1999) Samuel, Lawrence R. The American Dream: A Cultural History (Syracuse University Press; 2012) 241 pages; identifies six distinct eras since the phrase was coined in 1931. External links American culture at Curlie.

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The american dream definition. The american dream book. The American dream team. The American Dream (2018) English Full Movie Watch Online Free… The American full movie yts. The american dream car. The american dream in 1960. The American dream to reality. The american dream vr. Dec. 4, 2013 Lawyers often see the criminal and civil courts as two separate entities, but for people caught up in the legal system, the problems often bleed from one arena into the other. Having a bad lawyer, or an overwhelmed one, can result in a felony conviction rather than a misdemeanor, or a plea deal rather than a trial. Those missed opportunities can have economic and social ripple effects that last far beyond any prison sentence. Full Story By Michael Lawson Feb. 15, 2013 “We like to think that people are poor in American because they don’t work, ” said Brandon Roberts, manager of the Working Poor Families Project. But, he said, "Even though you are working, you have an increasing chance of being low-income or poor. ” Feb. 6, 2013 The United States has lost a third of its manufacturing jobs as companies seek to save costs and produce elsewhere. But a Brookings report argues the nation could excel again in manufacturing by changing its approach to engineering education. Jan. 15, 2013 A little investment in a decades-old government program could help in the fight to get Americans back to work. This is a look at the U. S. Employment Service, a proactive response to high unemployment. By Kat Aaron Dec. 27, 2012 Workers at Momentive Performance Materials have what thousands of unemployed Americans want most: jobs that pay a decent wage. | Documents Dec. 26, 2012 In the years since a private-equity firm took over Momentive, workers have seen contract fights, safety problems and slashed wages. This is the new face of stability in the American workplace. Demand for home health-care workers is growing. But low wages and lack of benefits — including health care — contribute to the struggle many in the industry continue to face. Sept. 20, 2012 Another Census report released Thursday shows Mississippi again is the poorest state in the country, but 21 other states and the District of Columbia report poverty rates above the national average. Sept. 17, 2012 Hundreds of letters poured into the offices of The Philadelphia Inquirer in response to the gripping story of economic woes told in the original America: What Went Wrong? series by Donald Barlett and James Steele 20 years ago. While letters today are submitted electronically and conversations are often are on cell phones, the feeling of economic despair sounds eerily familiar. Bill Cotter's letter is one in an occasional series about people who submitted their story to us over the many months that we have worked on our current project, What Went Wrong: The Betrayal of the American Dream. The series led to Barlett and Steele's new, best-selling book, "The Betrayal of the America Dream, " released in August. Sept. 12, 2012 Income is down and inequality is up, but the details are more nuanced and include the point that the poverty rate is flat. By Donald L. Barlett and James B. Steele Aug. 19, 2012 What will it take to fix the nation's economic problems? Co-authors Barlett and Steele offer solutions, including limiting subsidized imports and insisting that foreign nations lower their barriers to U. goods. | Web Chat Aug. 17, 2012 Hundreds of letters poured into the offices of The Philadelphia Inquirer in response to the gripping story of economic woes told in the original “America: What Went Wrong? ” series by Donald Barlett and James Steele 20 years ago. While letters today are submitted electronically and conversations are had across cell phones, the feeling of economic despair sounds eerily familiar. Here is the first in an occasional series about people who submitted their story to us over the many months that we have embarked on a new project, “What Went Wrong: The Betrayal of the American Dream. ” The series also led to Barlett and Steele's new, best-selling book, "The Betrayal of the America Dream, " released earlier this month. Aug. 5, 2012 "The Betrayal of the American Dream" is the story of how people in power put in place policies that enriched themselves while cutting the ground out from underneath the middle class. Video Aug. 4, 2012 America essentially invented outsourcing, but few outside the corporate world realized how rapidly it, along with other trade policies, would devastate employment across the middle class, as imports quickly overwhelmed exports, and workers were sacrificed on the altar of unrestricted free trade. By Wendell Cochran, Michael Lawson June 19, 2012 Factory jobs declined by nearly half since the peak in 1979, when there were 21 million manufacturing workers. But employment grew in some states west of the Mississippi River. Videos By Monica Arpino, Michael Lawson, Alissa Scheller, Yasmine El-Sabawi The economic story of the past 40 years stands in sharp contrast to earlier periods in American history, when an expanding economy brought broader prosperity. June 14, 2012 Much has been said about jobs going overseas, but manufacturers are also finding trouble filling jobs available  now. Even as manufacturing jobs have declined over decades, the economy has still grown, so why does manufacturing matter? What has been the impact of shifts in manufacturing? By Wendell Cochran A description of how we collected and analyzed 40 years' worth of manufacturing employment data. By Jacob Fenton Tracing the history of manufacturing employment since 1970, state-by-state: See our interactive and historical maps. By Madeline Beard, Wendell Cochran The story of the decline and changes in American manufacturing is both a regional picture and a national one. March 6, 2012 A lack of employment and economic security has put into flux prospects of the American Dream for the next generation. But crisis-level unemployment has persisted in black communities for decades. What's the solution? A look at a new report from the Economic Policy Institute and interviews with people on the front lines. States voting today are pictures of economic challenge. See the latest economic indicators for the 10 states in the news tonight. By Lydia Beyoud Jan. 26, 2012 People said they still believe in the American Dream, equating it with economic success. But their expectations of what they can achieve for themselves and their children has changed during the last few years. By Lynne Perri Many young college students remain optimistic that they can still achieve the American Dream despite tough economic times. Jan. 23, 2012 Elder care and home health care are rare bright spots in the American economy, adding jobs at a steady clip. But as the workforce grows, so, too, do fights on unionization, wages and benefits. Dec. 24, 2011 Some call this moment the Great Recession. As the hardship has lingered, others have begun calling it the Little Depression. But equating the hard times of the 1930s with the hard times of today is mostly overblown rhetoric. Or is it? Profiles Dec. 9, 2011 Protesters from around the country are camped on the National Mall, pressing Congress to extend unemployment benefits and the payroll tax cut. Michael Lawson files this snapshot of their march to Capitol Hill. Nov. 16, 2011 Apple moved its production offshore in less than a generation and changing the career path of many of its workers. One of its workers describes a current and future life of temporary jobs that will keep him on the move, with retirement not in sight. Nov. 7, 2011 New data from the Census Bureau paints a fresh and complex picture of poverty in America. With tax credits and food stamps factored in, the number of children in poverty falls. When you include medical costs, the number of seniors in poverty skyrockets. Kat Aaron looks at how the supplemental poverty measure will change the poverty debate. Nov. 3, 2011 American poverty rates are based on calculations created in the 1960s by a statistician named Mollie Orshansky. Now, decades later, the figures are getting an overhaul. Will the new numbers shine a brighter light on the poor? By Russ Choma Oct. 26, 2011 Training for green industries doesn't necessarily result in job offers, particularly for those hoping to break into entry-level positions such as wind techs, despite the administration's push. Oct. 21, 2011 Occupy Wall Street protests, begun last month in Manhattan, have now spread to over 100 cities across the country. Here's some very local coverage from Minnesota, Connecticut and Missouri, thanks to our hyperlocal partners. By Paul Abowd Oct. 20, 2011 The Occupy movement has built a national base powerful enough to alter discussions about the American economy. Protesters now face police crackdowns, questions about demands and a quickly approaching winter. But despite the pressures of politics and weather, occupiers are standing their ground. Oct. 15, 2011 The reconstruction of the San Francisco Bay Bridge is well timed to create much-needed jobs. And it has. Only the jobs are in China. Will the outsourcing of this $12 billion project deliver a death blow to the American steel industry? Oct. 13, 2011 Job-training programs can provide an avenue to the American Dream for those who have fallen through the cracks. But budget fights may cut off a critical flow of funds, putting years of success at risk. Oct. 10, 2011 Turns out it's not older workers struggling the most in the post-recession period. It's young workers, and the consequences of their shaky entry to the job market will ripple for decades. Graphic By Kat Aaron, Lynne Perri For teen girls of color, the recovery has "been an absolute disaster. " New numbers from Gallup show young African-American women are facing an uphill road to employment. The head of Gallup, which polls Americans regularly, says the nation's mood is bleak. But Americans' lack of confidence in the federal government concerns him more. By Jennifer Inez Ward Sept. 22, 2011 If Oakland doesn’t find a way to rein in its fiscal woes and create more sustainable jobs for its residents, it could see a steep crash, with a long road ahead to recovery. As it stands now, the West Coast city is already headed for painful fiscal times. By Viji Sundaram Sept. 16, 2011 The Hernandez family in East Palo Alto, Calif., is among the growing number of Californians in poverty more than 2 million of them children. By Naima Ramos-Chapman, Vaughn Hillyard Finding work is still a serious challenge for residents of the nation's capital. The Investigative Reporting Workshop interviewed dozens of people looking for work in the District of Columbia as well as those who counsel and serve them. Facing the worst economic outlook in decades, job seekers are struggling and frustrated, but trying to stay optimistic. Interviews Sept. 13, 2011 From the president to Congress to nearly every neighborhood in America, the focus today is on job creation. But for millions of Americans, just having a job doesn’t mean prosperity or anything like it. We report on the rise of the working poor. More Americans than ever before — 4. 62 million — were living in poverty in 2010, according to new data from the U. Census Bureau. And 6. 7 percent of Americans live in deep poverty, below 50 percent of the poverty line, the highest rate ever recorded. Read on. By Bryant Ruiz Switzky Sept. 8, 2011 Many people think old debt is forgotten debt. But hundreds of thousands of debtors nationwide have been hit by a new breed of collection agency: debt buyers, attracted by the potential for huge profits. And private equity firms are getting in on the action. Bryant Switzky reports. By Kat Aaron, Mary Kane Aug. 5, 2011 Housing counselors are getting hammered by federal budget cuts that take effect this fall, and any new money for 2012 is likely to require a fight — all in a period when foreclosure actions are expected to rise. By Ngoc Nguyen July 25, 2011 California’s foreclosure crisis has decimated urban centers and swaths of the Central Valley. One in 51 housing units received a foreclosure filing during the first six months of 2011, according to RealtyTrac. Minorities in the state are being hit the hardest. New America Media's Ngoc Nguyen explores the reach of the state's mortgage meltdown and legislative efforts to solve California's deep housing problems. Slideshow Sidebar July 23, 2011 The Fort Myers-Cape Coral region, home to about 60, 000 veterans, is a microcosm of what is happening all over America to veterans facing tough times. July 21, 2011 The Investigative Reporting Workshop and New America Media have teamed up to portray the human face of the crisis a year after the passage of landmark financial reform California, we profile homeowners who have been devastated by the loss of their homes and have had to start over. In Maryland, we examine the nation’s wealthiest majority-black county, where the consequences of lost homes will ripple for generations. By Michael Lawson, Naima Ramos-Chapman Since the foreclosure crisis hit, the federal government has launched program after program to help homeowners. But the number of foreclosures, delinquencies, vacancies and lives destroyed continues to mount. By Michael Lawson, Kat Aaron Since 1995, the federal government has spent nearly $40 billion and provided trillions of dollars worth of insurance guarantees to lenders to promote homeownership, with many initiatives focused specifically on communities of color. But despite more than 15 years of commitments to the American dream, almost all the gains in home ownership made since the early 1990s have been erased. Prince George's County, Md., is the wealthiest majority-black county in the country. Here, as in many communities of color, residents have been devastated by the foreclosure crisis. Mediation was touted as a way to stop the bleeding. But a year after the state passed a mediation law, just 56 homeowners have gotten a modification of their loan. Map Explainer July 12, 2011 Funding for legal aid would drop back to 1999 levels, under a proposal released last week by the House Appropriations Committee. Legal services groups say they're already stretched too thin, and further cuts will mean even more poor people have to face the courts alone. By Kate Musselwhite June 21, 2011 Thousands gathered on the National Mall last October to rally for the creation of more jobs. But teachers, caregivers and health-care professionals say they are still discouraged months later about the pace of the economic recovery. Here they talk about what they are facing on the home front. June 18, 2011 The trade deficit has decimated the American workforce, blocked the creation of millions of jobs, created millions more jobs for people in other countries, triggered pay cuts for millions of workers who still have jobs in the United States, and generally lowered the standard of living for many at the bottom and in the middle of the economic pile. By Workshop Staff June 8, 2011 States are cutting unemployment benefits, cash assistance, child care and job training, writes the Workshop's Kat Aaron at the American Prospect. Without these supports, American workers may be unprepared for the future — if they make it through the present Data May 12, 2011 The skills and education of America's workforce don't line up with the jobs on offer. By 2018, 72 percent of all jobs will require a college degree, but just 40 percent of Americans now have an associates degree. The solution involves massive changes to the way America thinks about education, workforce development and economic policy. April 16, 2011 One of the more egregious falsehoods being peddled by the corporate tax cutters is that companies doing business in the United States are taxed at an exorbitant rate. Not so. While the United States has one of the highest statutory rates on the books at 35 percent, the only fair way to measure what companies actually pay is their effective rate after deductions, credits and assorted writeoffs. April 15, 2011 The Obama Administration’s foreclosure prevention program was projected to help 3 million to 4 million homeowners. Now, the program is expected to help less than half that. So if the program isn’t saving homes, what is? Since the rise of interactive data visualizations, the dismal science has become decidedly less dismal. Economists are still painting a pretty grim picture of the American economy, but at least the statistics are easy to understand and interpret, thanks to a few stellar new websites. March 22, 2011 The Trade Adjustment Act provides expanded benefits to workers who lose their jobs because of imports or offshoring — jobs lost because a company moves its factory overseas or starts importing a product that used to be made in America. Workers can get retrained through the program. But for what? By Julie Snider, Kat Aaron, Jacob Fenton Offshoring moves in waves, with spikes and troughs in particular industries. These charts track the number of Trade Adjustment petitions approved. Each petition represents work moved overseas or lost to trade. It does not show the number of workers who lost jobs. March 17, 2011 Workers at a nursing home near Philadelphia unionized last year, seeking better wages and less expensive health care. Still without a contract, they picketed, a scene likely to be repeated around the country in the coming months and years. March 10, 2011 JD Galvin studied substance abuse counseling in college, and started his career in human services. He switched to IT in 2000 and was laid off two years ago. He has yet to find a new job. He's now active in the 99ers movement, an effort to organize people who have exhausted all available unemployment benefits. Wayne Drescher worked in automotive IT in Indiana.  He was with his company for 23 years before being laid off from his position more than two years ago. Here is an edited excerpt of their conversation. Alan Gunderson, 52, worked as a systems analyst and computer programmer in Tulsa, Okla.  When he quit his job in July 2008, he had never been out of a job longer than a month. After two years out of work he landed a new job nine months ago, earning $15, 000 less with no guaranteed benefits. In 1990, the U. Department of Labor predicted there would be more well-paid  jobs for programmers with four years of college. They were wrong. Employment fluctuated in the years following the report, then settled into a slow downward pattern after 2000. Feb. 7, 2011 Eileen Breen was one of hundreds who wrote to Barlett and Steele twenty years ago, hoping that things would get better for her and her family.  Now 53, things haven't panned out the way she hoped. In 1991, Barlett and Steele traveled the country talking to people about their work and lives.  As the reporters gathered similar and compelling stories of job losses and factory closings from California to New York, they came to the realization that what they had was more than a traditional newspaper story. Here at the website, we're launching into a year of experimentation.  We'll be doing deep-dig reporting, from Barlett and Steele and the IRW team. We'll also be comparing policy proposals, creating glossaries and sharing data sets.  And we want to hear your stories — first, on offshoring and outsourcing. Donald Barlett and James Steele revisited  America: What Went Wrong, their landmark 1991 newspaper series, in conjunction with the Investigative Reporting Workshop.  Over the past 18 months, the project team has examined how four decades of public policy have shaped America's ongoing economic crisis. Video.

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